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Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease)

Enterovirus D68 in the United States, 2014

Prevention and Control of Seasonal Influenza with Vaccines: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) — United States, 2014–15 Influenza Season

Seasonal Influenza (Flu)

INFLUENZA WEBSITE OF THE STATE OF SOUTH DAKOTA DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH

 

West Nile Virus

 

It is West Nile Virus Season and there have been positive pools of mosquitoes fouind in Brookings County.  Community Control Programs are but one component of a mosquito control program as each pesron must take responsibility for reducing their risk of contracting West Nile Virus. 

See this factsheet from the SD Department of Health on steps you can take to reduce the risk of contracting the disease.

Cleary the virus is circulating in our state so people need to get in the habit of remembering repellent for all their outdoor activities, especially now that school is approaching with its fall sports season,” said Kightlinger. “Parents and coaches need to make sure their student athletes use repellent for those outdoors practices and events.”

To prevent mosquito bites and reduce the risk of WNV:

  • Use mosquito repellents (DEET, picaridin, oil of lemon eucalyptus, or IR3535) and limit exposure by wearing pants and long sleeves in the evening.
  • Limit time outdoors from dusk to midnight when Culex mosquitoes are most active.
  • Get rid of standing water that gives mosquitoes a place to breed.
  • Support local mosquito control efforts. 

 

For more information see the Extension Disaster Education Network (EDEN) West Nile Virus Topic Page

 CDC September 17, 2013 Incidence rate neuroinvasive WNV - SD Leads Nation

 

MERS

 

MERS-CoV or MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome) Coronavirus is a coronavirus and a cousin to SARS. Coronaviruses are common viruses and most people at some time during their life will become infected with a coronavirus in the form of a cold. Human coronaviruses usually cause mild to moderate upper-respiratory tract illnesses of short duration. Symptoms may include runny nose, cough, sore throat, and fever. Lower respiratory tract infections tend to occur in people with underlying medical conditions. Fall and winter are typical times of the year for infections to occur.

Coronaviruses may also infect animals. Most of these coronaviruses usually infect only one animal species or, at most, a small number of closely related species.

As of May 29, 2013 the World Health Organization has warned MERS could be the next pandemic as the virus is spreading faster than information is being gained as to source and mode of transmission.

For more information see the EDEN MERS Topic Page. 

H7N9

Why the concern about H7N9?

This influenza A (H7N9) virus is one subgroup among the large group of H7 viruses. Although some H7 viruses (H7N2, H7N3 and H7N7) have occasionally been found to infect humans, until now H7N9 infections have not been reported in humans. And as such a new virus, it has the potential to spark a pandemic due to the lack of immunity in the human population.

Wednesday April 24, 2013 the World Health Organization warned H7N9 is one of the most deadly strains of influenza seen thus far and appears to be more easily transmitted than H5N1.Hong Kong offcials have suggested H7N9 is more lethal than SARS of 2005.  Genetic sequencing of the virus indicates this virus has adapted to infect humans, grow and bind to mammalian cells. As such this virus is now able to grow in lower temperature of the human body.

For the first time as well, on April 24, 2013 Chinese officials indicated the H7N9 was transmitted to humans via chickens. The researcher Yuen reminded people that chickens are one source of infection but may not be the only source.

For additional information see the Extension Disaster Education

Network H7N9 webpage. 

 

Prepare for a Disaster

 

Get a Kit. Make a Plan. Be informed. These are the steps to be prepared for any disaster natural or man-made. As you plan consider

whether you will be sheltering in place, evacuating or possibly doing both! Severe spring/summer weather dictates plans should be made for both sheltering in place and also evacuation. The primary concern in planning for severe summer weather is preparing for the potential loss of power, air conditioning, and/or communication systems.

Get a Kit: Build an emergency kit tailored for you and your family by going to bReadySD.com. You will be able to build your kit for 3 days or weeks, with food, water, and supplies needed for your family based on age of each family member. This link will also help you budget for creating a comprehensive kit.  

1. Never use generators, grills, camp stoves, or other gasoline, propane, natural gas, or charcoal-burning devices inside your home, basement, garage, or camper—or even outside near an open window.

2. Do not try to use bottles gas in natural gas appliances unless you have converted the appliances for such use. Also, flues and piping suitable for gas burning appliances may be unsafe for use with higher-temperature oil, coal or wood smoke.

3. If you lose power be aware of food safety issues and when in doubt throw out. 

 

Make a Plan. It is particularly important regardless of the disaster you have a communication plan in place.  Plan a meeting place and complete a plan (at bReadySD.com) to have contact numbers for family and friends locally and out-of-state. 

Be Informed. Learn the severe spring/summer weather terms and a few tips to prepare your car and home at ready.gov.   

Taking a few minutes now to prepare may save your life. 

2012 West Nile Virus Season

West Nile Virus is here to stay! In the recent years of cool springs and/or delayed warm weather we have had mild years relative to the number of positive mosquito pools tested and human cases reported.  The warm spring of 2012 may change this pattern and heighten our need to be vigilant and take personal precautions to reduce risk.

The nuisance mosquito Aedes vexans has wintered over and the population ready to bloom with the moisture as we have seen in recent weeks.  These mosquitoes are not efficient carriers of West Nile Virus, but because they are pesky they are good reminders for us to clean-up mosquito breeding areas, wear long sleeve clothing, use repellents, and/or limit outdoor activities at dawn and dusk. 

On the other hand the Culex tarsalis mosquitoes are efficient carriers of West Nile Virus  and they could potentially create a significant season for West Nile Virus, but we will not know this for several weeks.  These mosquitoes need time to breed and for the virus to be "amplified" before we can assess the threat to human health. The greatest risk for contracting West Nile Virus is from July 4 through October 1.  Communities have begun surveillance programs for targeted spraying and as the season progresses we will update this page relative to the potential threat and tips for personal safety.